When I create the exams I use the AP Curricular Framework as my guide but exam expectations go one step further. After the exam is complete, I read each question and write an expectation that reflects what you must know or be able to do in order to answer the question correctly. These are in my mind, non-negotiable if you are looking for a good grade on my summative exams. If you can not answer each exam expectation from the top of your head prior to the exam then you are simply not prepared and your grade will suffer. Having said that, knowing these does not guarantee that will not miss any questions, to err is human, but without them you are truly at a disadvantage.